Introduction to Physical pharmacy:
Matter, Properties of Matter:
State of matter, change in the state of matter, latent heats and vapor pressure,
sublimation-critical point, Eutectic mixtures, gases, aerosols-inhalers, relative
humidity, liquid. complexes, liquid crystals, glassy state, solids- crystalline,
amorphous and polymorphism.
Micromeretics and Powder Rheology:
Particle size and distribution, average particle size, number and weight distribution,
particle number, methods for determining particle volume, methods of determining
particle size- optical microscopy, sieving, sedimentation. measurements of particle
shape, specific surface area. methods for determining surface area. permeability,
adsorption, derived properties of powders, porosity, packing arrangement, densities,
bulkiness & flow properties.
Surface and Interfacial Phenomenon:
Liquid interface, surface and interfacial tensions, surface free energy, measurement
of surface and interfacial tensions, spreading coefficient, adsorption at liquid
interfaces, surface active agents, HLB classification, solubilization, detergency,
adsorption at solid interfaces, solid-gas and solid-liquid interfaces, complex films,
electrical properties of interface.
Viscosity and Rheology:
Newtonian systems, Law of flow, kinematic viscosity, effect of temperature. non-Newtonian
systems: pseudoplastic, dilatant, plastic. thixotropy, thixotropy in formulation,
negative thixotropy, determination of viscosity, capillary, falling ball, rotational
Definition, types, properties of colloids, protective colloids, applications of
colloids in pharmacy. Suspensions and Emulsions: Interfacial properties of suspended
particles, settling in suspensions, theory of sedimentation, effect of Brownian
motion, sedimentation of flocculated particles, sedimentation parameters, wetting
of particles, controlled flocculation, flocculation in structured vehicles, rheological
considerations. Emulsions-types, theories, physical stability.
Classification of complexes, methods of preparation and analysis, applications.
Kinetics and Drug Stability:
General considerations & concepts, half-life determination, Influence of temperature,
light, solvent, catalytic species and other factors, Accelerated stability study,
Importance of microbiology in pharmacy:
Classification of microbes and their taxonomy:
Actinomycetes, bacteria, rickettsiae, spirochetes and viruses.
Identification of Microbes:
Stains and types of staining techniques, electron microscopy. Nutrition, cultivation,
isolation of bacteria, actinomycetes, fungi, viruses, etc. Microbial genetics and
Control of microbes by physical and chemical methods:
Disinfection, factors influencing disinfectants, dynamics of disinfection, disinfectants
and antiseptics and their evaluation.
different methods, validation of sterilization methods & equipments. Sterility testing
of all pharmaceutical products. Microbial assays of antibiotics, vitamins & amino
Immunology and Immunological Preparations:
Principles, antigens and heptans, immune system, cellular/humoral immunity, immunological
tolerance, antigen-antibody reactions and their applications. Hypersensitivity,
active and passive immunization. Vaccines and sera: their preparation, standardization
Transformation, conjugation, transduction, protoplast fusion and gene cloning and
their applications. Development of hybridoma for monoclonal antibodies. Study of
drugs produced by biotechnology such as Activase, Humulin, Humatrope, HB etc.
Historical development of antibiotics. Antimicrobial spectrum and methods used for
their standardization. Screening of soil for organisms producing antibiotics, fermenter,
its design, control of different parameters. Isolation of mutants, factors influencing
rate of mutation. Design of fermentation process. Isolation of fermentation products
with special reference to penicillins, streptomycins tetracyclines and vitamin B12.
Introduction to pharmaceutical jurisprudence & ethics :
Pharmaceutical Legislations - A brief review, Drugs & Pharmaceutical Industry -
A brief review, Pharmaceutical Education - A brief review.
An elaborate study of the followings:
Pharmaceutical Ethics, Pharmacy Act 1948, Drugs and Cosmetics Act 1940 and Rules
1945, Medicinal & Toilet Preparations (Excise Duties) Act 1955, Narcotic Drugs &
Psychotropic Substances Act 1985 & Rules, Drugs Price Control Order.
A brief study of the following Acts with special reference to the main provisions
and the latest amendments:
Poisons Act 1919. Drugs and Magic Remedies (Objectionable Advertisements) Act 1954.
Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act 1970 & Rules 1975. Prevention of Cruelty to
Animals Act 1960. States Shops & Establishments Act & Rules. Insecticides Act 1968.
AICTE Act 1987. Factories Act 1948. Minimum Wages Act 1948. Patents Act 1970. A brief
study of the various Prescription/Non-prescription Products. Medical/Surgical accessories,
diagnostic aids, appliances available in the market.
Introduction to dispensing and community pharmacy Prescription:
Handling of prescription, source of errors in prescription, care required in dispensing
procedures including labeling of dispensed products. General dispensing procedures
including labeling of dispensed products. Pharmaceutical calculations: Posology,
calculation of doses for infants, adults and elderly patients. Enlarging and reducing
recipes percentage solutions, alligation, alcohol dilution, proof spirit, isotonic
solutions, displacement value etc..
Principles involved and procedures adopted in dispensing of :
Typical prescriptions like mixtures, solutions, emulsions, creams, ointments, powders,
capsules, pastes, jellies, suppositories, ophthalmic, pastilles, lozenges, pills,
lotions, liniments, inhalations, paints sprays tablet triturates, etc..
Physical and chemical incompatibilities, inorganic incompatibilities including incompatibilities
of metals and their salts, non-metals, acids, alkalis, organic incompatibilities.
Purine bases, alkaloids, pyrazolone derivatives, amino acids, quaternary ammonium
compounds, carbohydrates, glycosides, anesthetics, dyes, surface active agents,
correction of incompatibilities. Therapeutic incompatibilities.
Organization and structure of retail and whole sale drug store-types of drug store
and design, legal requirements for establishment, maintenance and drug store-dispensing
of proprietary products, maintenance of records of retail and wholesale, patient
counseling, role of pharmacist in community health care and education (First aid,
communicable diseases, nutrition, family planning).
Organization and Structure of hospital pharmacy:
Organization of a hospital and hospital pharmacy, Responsibilities of a hospital
pharmacist, Pharmacy and therapeutic committee, Budget preparation and Implementation.
Contents, preparation and revision of hospital formulary.
Drug Store Management and Inventory Control:
Organization of drug store, Types of materials stocked, storage conditions. Purchase
and Inventory Control principles, purchase procedures, Purchase order, Procurement
Drug distribution Systems in Hospitals:
Out-patient dispensing, methods adopted. Dispensing of drugs to in-patients. Types
of drug distribution systems. Charging policy, labeling. Dispensing of drugs to
ambulatory patients. Dispensing of controlled drugs, Dispensing of ancillary supplies.
Central Sterile Supply Unit and their Management:
Types of materials for sterilization, Packing of materials prior to sterilization,
sterilization equipments, Supply of sterile materials.
Manufacture of Sterile and Non-sterile Products:
Policy making of manufacturable items, demand and costing, personnel requirements,
manufacturing practice, Master formula Card, production control, Manufacturing records.
Drug Information Services:
Sources' of Information on drugs, disease, treatment schedules, procurement of information,
Computerized services (e.g., MEDLINE), Retrieval of information, Medication error-
types of medication errors, correction and reporting.
Records and Reports:
Prescription filling, drug profile, patient medication profile, cases on drug interaction
and adverse reactions, idiosyncratic cases.
Introduction to pharmacoeconomics, different methods of pharmacoeconomics, application
Definition and scope, method to conduct pharmacoepidemiological studies, advantages
& disadvantages of pharmacoepidemiological studies.
Methods of handling radioisotopes, radioisotope committee.
Importance of unit operations in manufacturing Stoichiometry:
Unit processes material and energy balances, molecular units, mole fraction, tie
substance, gas laws, mole volume, primary and secondary quantities, equilibrium
state, rate process, steady and unsteady states, dimensionless equations, dimensionless
formulae, dimensionless groups, different types of graphic representation, mathematical
Types of flow, Reynold's number, Viscosity, Concept of boundary layer, basic equations
of fluid flow, valves, flow meters, manometers and measurement of flow and pressure.
Concept of heat flow, applications of Fourier’s law, forced and natural convection,
surface coefficients, boiling liquids, condensing vapors, heat exchangers, heat
interchangers, radiation, black body, Stefan Boltzmann equation, Kirchoff’s law.
Basic concept of phase equilibria, factor affecting evaporation, evaporators, film
evaporators, single effect and multiple effect evaporators, Mathematical problems
Roult's law, phase diagrams, volatility. simple steam and flash distillations, principles
of rectification, Mc-Cabe Thiele method for calculations of number of theoretical
plates, Azeotropic and extractive distillation.
Moisture content and mechanism of drying, rate of drying and time of drying calculations.
classification and types of dryers, dryers used in pharmaceutical industries and
special drying methods.
Definition, objectives of size reduction, mechanisms of size reduction, factors
affecting size reduction, laws governing energy and power requirements of a mills
including ball mill, hammer mill, fluid energy mill.
Different techniques of size separation, sieves, sieve shakers, sedimentation tank,
cyclone separators, bag fillers etc.
Theory of mixing, solid-solid, solid-liquid and liquid-liquid mixing equipments.
Filtration and Centrifugation:
Theory of filtration, continuous and batch filters, filter aids, filter media, industrial
filters including filter press, rotary filter, edge filter, etc. Factors affecting
filtration, filtration, optimum cleaning cycle in batch filters. Principles of centrifugation,
industrial centrifugal filters, and centrifugal sedimenters.
Characteristics of crystals like-purity, size, shape, geometry, habit, forms size
and factors affecting them, Solubility curves and calculation of yields. Material
and heat balances around Swenson Walker Crystallizer. Supersaturation, theory and
its limitations, Nucleation mechanisms, crystal growth. Study of various types of
Crystallizers, tanks, agitated batch, Swenson Walker, Single vacuum, circulating
magma and Krystal Crystallizer, Caking of crystals and its prevention. Numerical
problems on yields.
Dehumidification and Humidity Control:
Basic concepts and definition, wet bulb and adiabatic saturation temperatures, Hygrometric
chart and measurement of humidity, application of humidity measurement in pharmacy,
equipments for dehumidificat4ion operations.
Refrigeration and Air Conditioning:
Principle and applications of refrigeration and air conditioning.
Material of Construction:
General study of composition, corrosion, resistance, Properties and applications
of the materials of construction with special reference to stainless steel and glass.
Material Handling Systems:
Liquid handling - Different types of pumps, Gas handling-Various types of fans,
blowers and compressors, Solid handling-Bins, Bunkers, Conveyers, Air transport.
Classification, mechanism of corrosion, factors affecting, prevention and control.
Layout, utilities and services.
Industrial Hazards and Safety Precautions:
Mechanical, Chemical, Electrical, fire and dust hazards. Industrial dermatitis,
Accident records etc.
Automated Process Control Systems:
Process variables, temperature, pressure, flow, level and vacuum and their measurements.
elements of automatic process control and introduction to automatic process control
systems. elements of computer aided manufacturing (CAM). Reactors and fundamentals
of reactors design for chemical reactions.
Liquid Dosages Forms:
Introduction, types of additives used in formulations, vehicles, stabilizers, preservatives,
suspending agents, emulsifying agents, solubilizers, colors, flavors and others,
manufacturing packaging, labeling, evaluation of clear liquids, suspensions and
emulsions official in pharmacopoeia.
Semisolid Dosage Forms:
Definitions, types, mechanisms of drug penetration, factors influencing penetration,
semisolid bases and their selection. General formulation of semisolids, clear gels
manufacturing procedure, evaluation and packaging.
Ideal requirements, bases, displacement value, manufacturing procedure, packaging
Extraction and Galenical Products:
Principle and method of extraction, preparation of infusion, tinctures, dry and
soft liquid extracts.
Blood Products and Plasma Substitutes:
Collection, processing and storage of whole human blood, concentrated human RBCs,
dried human plasma, human fibrinogen, human thrombin, human normal immunoglobulin,
human fibrin, foam plasma substitutes, -ideal requirements, PVP, dextran etc. for
control of blood pressure as per I.P.
Definition, propellants, general formulation, manufacturing and packaging methods,
Requirements, formulation, methods of preparation, labeling, containers, evaluation.
Cosmeticology and Cosmetic Preparations:
Fundamentals of cosmetic science, structure and functions of skin and hair. Formulation,
preparation and packaging of cosmetics for skin, hair, dentifrice and manicure preparations
like nail polish, nail polish remover, Lipsticks, eye lashes, baby care products
Advantages and disadvantages of capsule dosage form, material for production of
hard gelatin capsules, size of capsules, formulation, method of capsule filling,
soft gelatin, capsule shell and capsule content, importance of base absorption and
minimum/gm factors in soft capsules, quality control, stability testing and storage
of capsule dosage forms.
Types of microcapsules, importance of microencapsulation in pharmacy, microencapsulation
by phase separation, coacervation, multi-orifice, spray drying, spray congealing,
polymerization complex emulsion, air suspension technique, coating pan and other
techniques, evaluation of micro capsules.
Advantages and disadvantages of tablets, Application of different types of tablets,
Formulation of different types of tablets, granulation, technology on large-scale
by various techniques, different types of tablet compression machinery and the equipments
employed, evaluation of tablets.
Coating of Tablets:
Types of coating, film forming materials, formulation of coating solution, equipments
for coating, coating process, evaluation of coated tablets. Stability kinetics and
Pre-formulation factors, routes of administration, water for injection, and sterile
water for injection, pyrogenicity, non aqueous vehicles, isotonicity and methods
of its adjustment, Formulation details, Containers and closures and selection, labeling.
Pre-filling treatment, washing of containers and closures, preparation of solution
and suspensions, filling and closing of ampoules, vials, infusion fluids, lyophilization
& preparation of sterile powders, equipment for large scale manufacture and evaluation
of parenteral products. Aseptic Techniques-source of contamination and methods of
prevention, Design of aseptic area, Laminar flow bench services and maintenance.
Sterility testing of pharmaceuticals.
Definition, primary wound dressing, absorbents, surgical cotton, surgical gauzes
etc., bandages, adhesive tape, protective cellulosic hemostastics, official dressings,
absorbable and non-absorbable sutures, ligatures and catguts.
Packaging of Pharmaceutical Products:
Packaging components, types, specifications and methods of evaluation, stability
aspects of packaging. Packaging equipments, factors influence choice of containers,
legal and official requirements for containers, package testing.
Designing of dosage forms and Pre-formulation studies:
Study of physical properties of drug like physical form, particle size, shape, density,
wetting, dielectric constant. Solubility, dissolution and organoleptic properties
and their effect on formulation, stability and bioavailability. Study of chemical
properties of drugs like hydrolysis, oxidation, reduction, racemization, polymerization
etc., and their influence on formulation and stability of products. Study of pro-drugs
in solving problems related to stability, bioavailability and elegancy of formulations.
Design, development and process validation methods for pharmaceutical operations
involved in the production of pharmaceutical products with special reference to
tablets, suspensions. Stabilization and stability testing protocol for various pharmaceutical
products. ICH Guidelines for stability testing of formulations.
Performance evaluation methods:
In-vitro dissolution studies for solid dosage forms methods, interpretation of dissolution
data. Bioavailability studies and bioavailability testing protocol and procedures.
In vivo methods of evaluation and statistical treatment. GMP and quality assurance,
Quality audit. Design, development, production and evaluation of controlled/sustained/extended
Passage of drugs across biological barrier (passive diffusion, active transport,
facilitated diffusion, ion-pair formation and pinocytosis). Factors influencing
absorption- biological, physico-chemical, physiological and pharmaceutical. Drug
distribution in the body, plasma protein binding.
Significance of plasma drug concentration measurement. Compartment model- Definition
and Scope. Pharmacokinetics of drug absorption - Zero order and first order absorption
rate constant using Wagner-Nelson and residual methods. Volume of distribution and
distribution coefficient. Compartment kinetics- One compartment and two compartment
models. Determination of pharmacokinetic parameters from plasma and urine data after
drug administration by intravascular and oral route. Clearance concept, mechanism
of renal clearance, clearance ratio, determination of renal clearance. Extraction
ratio, hepatic clearance, biliary excretion, extra-hepatic circulation. Non-linear
pharmacokinetics with special reference to one compartment model after I.V. drug
Definition and scope:
Dosage adjustment in patients with and without renal and hepatic failure. Design
of single dose bio-equivalence study and relevant statistics and Pharmacokinetic
drug interactions and their significance in combination therapy.
Bioavailability and bioequivalence:
Measures of bioavailability, Cmax, tmax, Keli and Area Under the Curve (AUC) and
Design of single dose bioequivalence study and relevant statistics. Review of regulatory
requirements for conducting bioequivalent studies. Biopharmaceutical Classification
System (BCS) of drugs.
Importance of inorganic compounds in pharmacy and medicine:
An outline of methods of preparation, uses, sources of impurities, tests for purity
and identity, including limit tests for iron, arsenic, lead, heavy metals, chloride,
sulphate and special tests if any, of the following classes of inorganic pharmaceuticals
included in Indian Pharmacopoeia.
Acidifying agents, Antacids, Protectives and Adsorbents, Cathartics.
Major Intra- and Extra-cellular Electrolytes:
Physiological ions. Electrolytes used for replacement therapy, acid-base balance
and combination therapy.
Essential and Trace Elements:
Transition elements and their compounds of pharmaceutical importance, Iron and haematinics,
mineral supplements. Cationic and anionic components of inorganic drugs useful for
Protectives, Astringents and Anti-infectives.
Gases and Vapors:
Oxygen, Anesthetics (inorganic) and Respiratory stimulants.
Dentifrices, Anti-caries agents. Complexing and chelating agents used in therapy.
Sclerosing agents, Expectorants, Emetics, Inorganic poisons and antidotes.
Pharmaceutical Aids Used in Pharmaceutical Industry:
Anti-oxidants, Preservatives, Filter aids, Adsorbents, Diluents, Excipients, Suspending
Acids, Bases and Buffers:
Buffer equations and buffer capacity in general, buffers in pharmaceutical systems,
preparation, stability, buffered isotonic solutions, measurements of tonicity, calculations
and methods of adjusting isotonicity.
Nuclear reaction, radioisotopes, radiopharmaceuticals, Nomenclature, Methods of
obtaining their standards and units of activity, half-life, measurement of activity,
clinical applications, dosage, hazards and precautions.
Importance of basic fundamentals of physical chemistry in pharmacy and Behaviour
Kinetic theory of gases, deviation from ideal behavior and explanation.
The Liquid State:
Physical properties (surface tension, parachor, viscosity, refractive index, dipole
Ideal and real solutions, solutions of gases in liquids, colligative properties,
partition coefficient, conductance and its measurement, Debye Huckel theory.
First, Second and Third laws, Zeroth law, Concept of free energy, enthalpy and entropy,
absolute temperature scale.
Thermochemical equations, Phase rule, Adsorption:
Freudlich and Gibbs adsorption, isotherms, Langmuir’s theory of adsorption.
Consequences of light absorption, Jabolenski diagram, Quantum efficiency.
Zero, First and Second order reactions, complex reactions, theories of reaction
kinetics, characteristics of homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis, acid base
and enzyme catalysis.
Quantum Mechanics :
Postulates of quantum mechanics, operators in quantum mechanics, the Schrodinger
Importance of fundamentals of organic chemistry in pharmaceutical sciences and Structure
Atomic structure, Atomic orbitals, Molecular orbital theory, wave equation, Molecular
orbitals, Bonding and Anti-bonding orbitals, Covalent bond, Hybrid orbitals, Intramolecular
forces, Bond dissociation energy, Polarity of bonds, Polarity of molecules, Structure
and physical properties, Intermolecular forces, Acids and bases.
Nomenclature, isomerism, stereoisomerism, conformational and configurational isomerism,
optical activity, specification of configuration, Reactions involving stereoisomers,
Stereoselective and stereospecific reactions. Structure, Nomenclature, Preparation
and Reactions of:
Alkanes, Alkenes, Alkynes, Cyclic analogs, Dienes, Benzene, Polynuclear aromatic
compounds, Arenes, Alkyl halides, Alcohols, Ethers, Epoxides, Amines, Phenols, Aldehydes
and ketones, Carboxylic acids, Functional derivatives of' carboxylic acids, a,ß-Unsaturated
carbonyl compounds, Reactive intermediates- carbocations, carbanions, carbenes and
Nucleophilic and Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution Reactions:
Reactivity and orientation.Electrophilic and Nucleophilic Addition Reactions. Rearrangements
(Beckman, Hoffman, Benzilic acid, pinacole-pinacolone and Beyer-Villiger). Elimination
Conservation of Orbital Symmetry and Rules:
Electrocyclic, Cycloaddition and Sigmatropic reactions. Neighboring group effects.
Catalysis by transition metal complexes.
Nomenclature, preparation, properties and reactions of 3, 4, 5, 6 & 7-membered heterocycles
with one or two heteroatoms like 0, N, S. Chemistry of lipids, Carbohydrates and
Proteins. Biochemistry in pharmaceutical sciences.
The concept of free energy:
Determination of change in free energy - from equilibrium constant and reduction
potential, bioenergetics, production of ATP and its biological significance.
Nomenclature, enzyme kinetics and their mechanism of action, mechanism of inhibition,
enzymes and iso-enzymes in clinical diagnosis.
Vitamins as co-enzymes and their significance. Metals as cofactors and their significance.
Conversion of polysaccharides to glucose-1-phosphate, Glycolysis, fermentation and
their regulation, Gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis, Metabolism of galactose and
galactosemia, Role of sugar nucleotides in biosynthesis, and Pentose phosphate pathway.
The Citric Acid Cycle:
Significance, reactions and energetics of the cycle, Amphibolic role of the cycle,
and Glyoxalic acid cycle.
Lipids Metabolism :
Oxidation of fatty acids, ß-oxidation & energetics, biosynthesis of ketone bodies
and their utilization, biosynthesis of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, Control
of lipid metabolism, Essential fatty acids & eicosanoids (prostaglandins, thromboxanes
and leukotrienes), phospholipids, and sphingolipids, Biosynthesis of eicosanoids,
cholesterol, androgens, progesterone, estrogens corticosteroids and bile acids.
Redox-potential, enzymes and co-enzymes involved in oxidation reduction & its control,
The respiratory chain, its role in energy capture and its control, energetics of
oxidative phosphorylation. Inhibitors of respiratory chain and oxidative phosphorylation,
Mechanism of oxidative phosphorylation.
Metabolism of ammonia and nitrogen containing monomers:
Nitrogen balance, Biosynthesis of amino acids, Catabolism of amino acids, Conversion
of amino acids to specialized products, Assimilation of ammonia, Urea. cycle, metabolic
disorders of urea cycle, Metabolism of sulphur containing amino acids.
Purine nucleotide inter-conversions.
Biosynthesis of Nucleic Acids:
Brief introduction of genetic organization of the mammalian genome, alteration and
rearrangements of genetic material, Biosynthesis of DNA and its replications.
Physical & chemical mutagenesis/carcinogenesis, DNA repair mechanism. Biosynthesis
Genetic Code and Protein Synthesis:
Genetic code, Components of protein synthesis and Inhibition of protein synthesis.
Basic Principles of Medicinal Chemistry:
Physico-chemical and stereoisomeric (Optical, geometrical) aspects of drug molecules
and biological action, Bioisosterism, Drug-receptor interactions including transduction
mechanisms. Drug metabolism and Concept of Prodrugs.
Principles of Drug Design (Theoretical Aspects):
Traditional analog and mechanism based approaches, QSAR approaches, Applications
of quantum mechanics, Computer Aided Drug Designing (CADD) and molecular modeling.
Synthetic Procedures, Mode of Action, Uses, Structure Activity Relationships including
Physicochemical Properties of the Following Classes of Drugs:
Drugs acting at synaptic and neuro-effector junction sites:
Cholinergics, anti-cholinergics and cholinesterase inhibitors, Adrenergic drugs,
Antispasmodic and anti-ulcer drugs, Local Anesthetics, Neuromuscular blocking agents.
Antihistamines, Eicosanoids, Analgesic-antipyretics, Anti-inflammatory (non-steroidal)
Steroidal nomenclature (IUPAC) and stereochemistry, Androgens and anabolic agents,
Estrogens and Progestational agents, Oral contraceptives, Adrenocorticoids.
Drugs acting on the central nervous system:
General Anesthetics, Hypnotics and Sedatives, Anticonvulsants, Anti-Parkinsonian
drugs, Psychopharmacological agents (Neuroleptics, Anti-depressants, Anxiolytics),
Opioid analgesics, Anti-tussives, CNS stimulants, Diuretics.
Anti-hypertensives, Anti-arrythmic agents, anti-anginal agents, Cardiotonics, Anti-hyperlipedemic
agents, Anticoagulants and Anti-platelet drugs. Thyroid and Anti thyroid drugs. Insulin
and oral hypoglycemic agents.Chemotherapeutic Agents used in bacterial,
fungal, viral, protozoal, parasitic and other infections, Antibiotics: ß-Lactam,
macrolides, tetracyclines, aminoglycosides, polypeptide antibiotics, fluoroquinolones,
Anti-metabolites(including sulfonamides). Anti-neoplastic agents. Anti-viral
agents (including anti–HIV). Immunosuppressives and immunostimulants. Diagnostic
agents. Pharmaceutical Aids.
Introduction, types of reactions mediated by micro-organisms, design of biotransformation
processes, selection of organisms, biotransformation process and its improvements
with special reference to steroids.
Techniques of immobilization, factors affecting enzyme kinetics, Study of enzymes
such as hyaluronidase, penicillinase, streptokinase, amylases and proteases, Immobilization
of bacteria and plant cells.
Different techniques of pharmaceutical analysis, Preliminaries and definitions:
Significant figures, Rules for retaining significant digits, Types of errors, Mean
deviation, Standard deviation, Statistical treatment of small data sets, Selection
of sample, Precision and accuracy.
Fundamentals of volumetric analysis:
methods of expressing concentration, primary and secondary standards.
Acid Base Titrations:
Acid base concepts, Role of solvents, Relative strengths of acids and bases, Ionization,
Law of mass action, Common ion effect, Ionic product of water, pH, Hydrolysis of
salts, Henderson-Hasselbach equation, Buffer solutions, Neutralization curves, Acid-base
indicators, Theory of indicators, Choice of indicators, Mixed indicators, Polyprotic
systems, Polyamine and amino acid systems, Amino acid titrations.
Oxidation Reduction Titrations:
Concepts of oxidation and reduction, Redox reactions, Strengths and equivalent weights
of oxidizing and reducing agents, Theory of redox titrations, Redox indicators,
Cell representations, Measurement of electrode potential, Oxidation-reduction curves,
Iodimetry and Iodometry, Titrations involving cerric ammonium sulphate, potassium
iodate, potassium bromate, potassium permanganate. titanous chloride, stannous chloride
and Sodium 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol.
Precipitation reactions, Solubility product, Effect of acids, temperature and solvent
upon the solubility of a precipitate, Argentometric titrations and titrations involving
ammonium or potassium thiocyanate, mercuric nitrate, and barium sulphate, indicators,
Methods of end point determination (GayLussac method, Mohr’s method, Volhard's method
and Fajan's method).
Precipitation techniques, The colloidal state, Supersaturation, Co-precipitation,
Post-precipitation, Digestion, washing of the precipitate, Filtration, Filter papers
and crucibles, Ignition, Thermogravimetric curves, Specific examples like barium
sulphate, aluminium as aluminium oxide, calcium as calcium oxalate and magnesium
as magnesium pyrophosphate, Organic precipitants.
Acidic and basic drugs, Solvents used, Indicators. Complexometric titrations.Complexing
agents used as titrants, Indicators, Masking and demasking.
Miscellaneous Methods of Analysis:
Diazotization titrations, Kjeldahl method of nitrogen estimation, Karl-Fischer aquametry,
Oxygen flask combustion method, Gasometry. Extraction procedures including separation
of drugs from excipients.
Standard redox potential, Nernst equation, Half-cell potential, Standard and indicating
electrodes, potentiometric titrations.
Specific and equivalent conductance, conductometric titrations.
Coulomb’s law, Coulometric titrations at fixed potential/current.
Decomposition potential, Half-wave potential, Diffision/migration/migration current,
Ilkovic equation, Cathodic/anodic polarography, Dropping mercury electrode, Graphite
electrode, Organic polarography.
Rotating platinum electrode, Amperometric titrations.
Theory of chromatography, plate theory, Factors affecting resolution, van Deemter
The following chromatographic techniques (including instrumentation) with relevant
examples of Pharmacopoeial products:
TLC, HPLC, GLC, HPTLC, Paper Chromatography and Column Chromatography. The Theoretical
Aspects, Basic Instrumentation, Elements of Interpretation of Spectra, and Applications
(quantitative and qualitative).
The Following Analytical Techniques:
Ultraviolet and visible spectrophotometry, Fluorimetry, Infrared spectrophotometry,
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy, Mass Spectrometry (EI & CI only), Flame
Photometry, Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy, X-ray Diffraction Analysis, Radioimmunoassay.
GLP, ISO 9000, TQM, Quality Review and Quality documentation, Regulatory control,
regulatory drug analysis, interpretation of analytical data, Validation, quality
audit: quality of equipment, validation of equipment, validation of analytical procedures.
Basic Principles of Cell Injury and Adaptations:
Causes of Cellular injury, pathogenesis, morphology of cell injury, adaptations
and cell death.
Basic Mechanisms involved in the process of inflammation and repair:
Vascular and cellular events of acute inflammation, chemical mediators of inflammation,
pathogenesis of chronic inflammation, brief outline of the process of repair.
T and B cells, MHC proteins, antigen presenting cells, immune tolerance, pathogenesis
of hypersensitivity reactions, autoimmune diseases, AIDS, Amyloidosis.
Pathophysiology of Common Diseases:
Asthma, diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, gout, ulcerative colitis, neoplasia, psychosis,
depression, mania, epilepsy, acute and chronic renal failure, hypertension, angina,
congestive heart failure, atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, congestive heart
failure, peptic ulcer, anemias, hepatic disorders, tuberculosis, urinary tract infections
and sexually transmitted diseases. Wherever applicable the molecular basis should
Fundamentals of general pharmacology:
Dosage forms and routes of administration, mechanism of action, combined effect
of drugs, factors modifying drug action, tolerance and dependence. Pharmacogenetics.
Principles of Basic and Clinical pharmacokinetics, absorption, Distribution, Metabolism
and Excretion of drugs, Adverse Drug Reactions. Bioassay of Drugs and Biological
Standardization. Discovery and development of new drugs, Bioavailability and bioequivalence
Pharmacology of Peripheral Nervous System:
Neurohumoral transmission (autonomic and somatic), Parasympathomimetics, Parasympatholytics,
Sympathomimetics, Adrenergic receptor and neuron blocking agents, Ganglion stimulants
and blocking agents, Neuromuscular blocking Agents, Local anesthetic Agents.
Pharmacology of Central Nervous System:
Neurohumoral transmission in the C.N.S., General Anesthetics, Alcohols and disulfiram,
Sedatives, Hypnotics, Anti-anxiety agents and Centrally acting muscle relaxants,
Psychopharmacological agents (anti-psychotics), anti-maniacs and hallucinogens,
Antidepressants, Anti-epileptics drugs, Anti-Parkinsonian drugs, Analgesics, Antipyretics,
Narcotic analgesics and antagonists, C.N.S. stimulants, Drug Addiction and Drug
Pharmacology of Cardiovascular System:
Drugs used in the management of congestive cardiac failure, Antihypertensive drugs,
Anti-anginal and Vasodilator drugs, including calcium channel blockers and beta
adrenergic antagonists, Anti-arrhythmic drugs, Anti-hyperlipedemic drugs, Drugs
used in the therapy of shock.
Drugs Acting on the Hemopoietic System:
Hematinics, Anticoagulants, Vitamin K and hemostatic agents, Fibrinolytic and anti-platelet
drugs, Blood and plasma volume expanders.
Drugs acting on urinary system:
Fluid and electrolyte balance, Diuretics.
Histamine, Antihistaminic drugs, 5-HT- its agonists and antagonists, Prostaglandins,
thromboxanes and leukotrienes, Angiotensin, Bradykinin and Substance P and other
vasoactive peptides, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory and anti-gout agents.
Drugs Acting on the Respiratory System:
Anti-asthmatic drugs including bronchodilators, Anti-tussives and expectorants,
Drugs acting on the Gastrointestinal Tract:
Antacids, Anti-secretory and Anti-ulcer drugs, Laxatives and anti-diarrhoeal drugs,
Appetite Stimulants and Suppressants, Emetics and anti-emetics, Miscellaneous: Carminatives,
demulcents, protectives, adsorbents, astringents, digestants, enzymes and mucolytics.
Pharmacology of Endocrine System:
Hypothalamic and pituitary hormones, Thyroid hormones and anti thyroid drugs, parathormone,
calcitonin and Vitamin D, Insulin, glucagons, incretins, oral hypoglycemic agents
and insulin analogs, ACTH and corticosteroids, Androgens and anabolic steroids,
Estrogens, progesterone and oral contraceptives, Drugs acting on the uterus.
General Principles of Chemotherapy, Bacterial resistance. Sulfonamides and cotrimoxazole,
Antibiotics- Penicillins, Cephalosporins, Aminoglycosides, Chloramphenicol, Macrolides,
Tetracyclines, Quinolones, fluoroquinolones and Miscellaneous antibiotics. Chemotherapy
of tuberculosis, leprosy, fungal diseases, viral diseases, HIV and AIDS, urinary
tract infections and sexually transmitted diseases, malaria, amoebiasis and other
protozoal infections and Anthelmentics. Chemotherapy of malignancy and immunosuppressive
Principles of Toxicology:
Definition of poison, general principles of treatment of poisoning with particular
reference to barbiturates, opioids, organophosphorous and atropine poisoning, Heavy
metals and heavy metal antagonists.
Basic Concepts of Pharmacotherapy:
Clinical Pharmacokinetics and individualization of Drug therapy, Drug delivery systems
and their Biopharmaceutic & Therapeutic considerations, Drugs used during infancy
and in the elderly persons (Pediatrics & Geriatrics), Drugs used during pregnancy,
Drug induced diseases, The basics of drug interactions, General principles of clinical
toxicology, Common clinical laboratory tests and their interpretation.
Important Disorders of Organs, Systems and their Management:
Cardio-vascular disorders- Hypertension, Congestive heart failure, Angina, Acute
myocardial infarction, Cardiac arrhythmias.
Epilepsy, Parkinsonism, Schizophrenia.
Depression Respiratory disease - Asthma.
Gastrointestinal Disorders - Peptic ulcer, Ulcerative colitis, Hepatitis,
Endocrine Disorders - Diabetes mellitus and Thyroid disorders.
Infectious Diseases - Tuberculosis, Urinary tract infections, Enteric infections,
Upper respiratory infections.
Hematopoietic Disorders - Anemias.
Joint and Connective tissue disorders - Rheumatic diseases, Gout and Hyperuricemia.
Neoplastic Diseases - Acute Leukaemias, Hodgkin's disease. Therapeutic Drug
Monitoring, Concept of Essential Drugs and Rational Drug use.
Sources of Drugs:
Biological, marine, mineral and plant tissue cultures as sources of drugs.
Classification of Drugs:
Morphological, taxonomical, chemical and pharmacological classification of drugs.
Study of medicinally important plants belonging to the families with special reference
Apocynacae, Solanaceae, Rutacease, Umbelliferae, Leguminosae, Rubiaceae, Liliaceae,
Graminae, Labiatae, Cruciferae, Papaveraceae.
Cultivation, Collection, Processing and Storage of Crude Drugs:
Factors influencing cultivation of medicinal plants, Types of soils and fertilizers
of common use. Pest management and natural pest control agents, Plant hormones and
their applications, Polyploidy, mutation and hybridization with reference to medicinal
Quality Control of Crude Drugs:
Adulteration of crude drugs and their detection by organoleptic, microscopic, physical,
chemical and biological methods and properties.
Introduction to Active Constituents of Drugs:
Their isolation, classification and properties.
Systematic pharmacognostic study of the followings:
CARBOHYDRATES and derived products:
agar, guar gum acacia, Honey, Isabagol, pectin, Starch, sterculia and Tragacanth.
Bees wax, Castor oil, Cocoa butter, Codliver oil, Hydnocarpus oil, Kokum butter,
Lard, Linseed oil, Rice, Bran oil, Shark liver oil and Wool fat.
Study of Drugs Containing Resins and Resin Combinations like Colophony, podophyllum,
jalap, cannabis, capsicum, myrrh, asafoetida, balsam of Tolu, balsam of Peru, benzoin,
Study of tannins and tannin containing drugs like Gambier, black catechu, gall and
General methods of obtaining volatile oils from plants, Study of volatile oils of
Mentha, Coriander, Cinnamon, Cassia, Lemon peel, Orange peel, Lemon grass, Citronella,
Caraway, Dill, Spearmint, Clove, Fennel, Nutmeg, Eucalyptus, Chenopodium, Cardamom,
Valerian, Musk, Palmarosa, Gaultheria, Sandal wood.
Preparation of extracts, Screening of alkaloids, saponins, cardenolides and bufadienolides,
flavonoids and leucoanthocyanidins, tannins and polyphenols, anthraquinones, cynogenetic
glycosides, amino acids in plant extracts.
Study of fibers used in pharmacy such as cotton, silk, wool, nylon, glass-wool,
polyester and asbestos.
Study of the biological sources, cultivation, collection, commercial varieties,
chemical constituents, substitutes, adulterants, uses, diagnostic macroscopic and
microscopic features and specific chemical tests of following groups of drugs:
GLYCOSIDE CONTAINING DRUGS:
Liquorice, ginseng, dioscorea, sarsaparilla, and senega.
Digitalis, squill, strophanthus and thevetia.
Aloe, senna, rhubarb and cascara.
Psoralea, Ammi majus, Ammi visnaga, gentian, saffron, chirata, quassia.
ALKALOID CONTAINING DRUGS:
Tobacco, areca and lobelia.
Belladonna, hyoscyamus, datura, duboisia, coca and withania.
Quinoline and Isoquinoline:
Cinchona, ipecac, opium.
Ergot, rauwolfia, catharanthus, nux-vomica and physostigma.
Steroidal: Veratrum and kurchi.
Alkaloidal Amine: Ephedra and colchicum.
Coffee, tea and cola. Biological sources, preparation, identification tests and
Diastase, papain, pepsin, trypsin, pancreatin.
Studies of Traditional Drugs:
Common vernacular names, botanical sources, morphology, chemical nature of chief
constituents, pharmacology, categories and common uses and marketed formulations
Amla, Kantkari, Satavari, Tylophora, Bhilawa, Kalijiri, Bach, Rasna, Punamava, Chitrack,
Apamarg, Gokhru, Shankhapushpi, Brahmi, Adusa, Atjuna, Ashoka, Methi, Lahsun, Palash,
Guggal, Gymnema, Shilajit, Nagarmotha and Neem. The holistic concept of drug administration
in traditional systems of medicine. Introduction to ayurvedic preparations like
Arishtas, Asvas, Gutikas, Tailas, Chumas, Lehyas and Bhasmas.
General Techniques of Biosynthetic Studies and Basic Metabolic Pathways/Biogenesis:
Brief introduction to biogenesis of secondary metabolites of pharmaceutical importance.
monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, diterpenes, and triterpenoids.
a-carotenoids, &beta.-carotenes, vitamin A, Xanthophylls of medicinal importance.
Digitoxin, digoxin, hecogenin, sennosides, diosgenin and sarasapogenin.
Atropine and related compounds, Quinine, Reserpine, Morphine, Papaverine, Ephedrine,
Ergot and Vinca alkaloids. Lignans, quassanoids and flavonoids.
Role of plant-based drugs on National economy:
A brief account of plant based industries and institutions involved in work on medicinal
and aromatic plants in India. Utilization and production of phyto-constituents such
as quinine, calcium sennosides, podophyllotoxin, diosgenin, solasodine, and tropane
alkaloids. Utilization of aromatic plants and derived products with special reference
to sandalwood oil, mentha oil, lemon grass oil, vetiver oil, geranium oil and eucalyptus
oil. World-wide trade in medicinal plants and derived products with special reference
to diosgenin (disocorea), taxol (Taxus sps) digitalis, tropane alkaloid containing
plants, Papain, cinchona, Ipecac, Liquorice, Ginseng, Aloe, Valerian, Rauwolfia
and plants containing laxatives. Plant bitters and sweeteners.
Plant Tissue Culture:
Historical development of plant tissue culture, types of cultures, nutritional requirements,
growth and their maintenance. Applications of plant tissue culture in pharmacognosy.
Novel medicinal agents from marine sources. Natural allergens and photosensitizing
agents and fungal toxins. Herbs as health foods. Herbal cosmetics. Standardization
and quality control of herbal drugs, WHO guidelines for the standardization of herbal